Haze Gray Photo Feature
Soviet & Russian Navy
Attack Submarines - Nuclear Powered
A 'NOVEMBER' class (Project 627 "Kit") attack
The 'NOVEMBERs' were the first Soviet SSNs, contemporaries of the
'ECHO' class SSGN and 'HOTEL' class SSBN. These boats were originally
planned for a 'strategic' role, with a very-long-range torpedo, but
ballistic missiles proved superior in this role and the 'NOVEMBER' was
redesigned as a relatively conventional torpedo-attack boat.
A stern closeup of a 'NOVEMBER' at sea with surface ships.
An overhead view of a 'NOVEMBER'.
Another overhead view of a 'NOVEMBER'.
This boat's sail appears to be smaller than other boats of the class, for
A water-level view of a 'NOVEMBER' underway.
A broadside view of a 'NOVEMBER' at sea.
An overhead view of a 'NOVEMBER'.
An 'ECHO I' (Project 659T) attack submarine.
The 'ECHO I' class (Project 659) boats were originally built
as the first Soviet SSGNs, carrying 8 SS-N-3 SSMs. This missile was
employed in the strategic role, rather than an anti-ship role, as the
boats could not accommodate the guidance radar needed for anti-ship
operations. The SS-N-3 proved unsuited for the strategic role, resulting
in the conversion of these boats to conventional torpedo-attack boats,
A 'VICTOR I' (Project 671) class submarine.
the 'VICTOR' was a new SSN, designed to replace the 'NOVEMBER', entering
service in the late 1960's. 15 of these boats were built, plus 3 Project
671V. For the first time, the hull design was based primarily on
hydrodynamics, rather than internal space requirements.
A bow view of a 'VICTOR I'.
A 'VICTOR I' leaving port.
An overhead view of a 'VICTOR I'.
A similar view of another 'VICTOR I', with diving planes extended.
A 'VICTOR II' (Project 671RT) class submarine.
'VICTOR II' is a lengthened version of the 'VICTOR I', accommodating
the new SS-N-16 ASW missile, which required greater torpedo room space.
In most other respects, they are repeats of the 'VICTOR I' class.
An overhead view of a 'VICTOR II'.
A broadside view of a 'VICTOR II' at sea.
Another overhead view of a 'VICTOR II'.
A bow-on view of a 'VICTOR II'.
A 'VICTOR III' class (Project 671RTM "Shchuka") attack
An extensively upgraded version of the previous 'VICTOR' classes,
these were the first Soviet submarines to take significant steps
towards quieting. They were longer than the 'VICTOR II', with new sonar,
sensor, and command suites.
A 'VICTOR III' on the surface.
This submarine has snagged a frigate's "tail" (towed array sonar), the
cable for which can be seen looped around the submarine's stern fin/rudder.
A surfaced 'VICTOR III'.
This is probably the same boat seen above, with a towed array snagged on
stern; the men on deck are probably trying to clear the entanglement.
A stern view of a 'VICTOR III' at sea.
A closeup of the 'VICTOR III' tail fin pod.
This pod, which was the subject of much discussion when first
seen, houses a towed array sonar.
An overhead bow view of a "VICTOR III'.
This is K-292 (Project 6717), fitted with a housing
for a SS-N-21 SSM launcher. This feature is believed to be unique to
A stern quarter view of a 'VICTOR III'.
A 'SIERRA' class (Project 945A Barrakuda) class submarine
One of two modern Soviet SSN classes, this sub combines a 'VICTOR III'
electronics suite with an icebreaker's reactor and a titanium hull.
These submarines, while of relatively high quality, were very expensive to
construct; construction was accordingly cancelled in favor of the cheaper
The second of the two 'SIERRA I' class boats, with a low extension/fairing
at the after end of the sail.
A bow-on view of a 'SIERRA I'
Another bow view of a 'SIERRA I'.
One of the two 'SIERRA II' (Project 945B) class submarines.
These boats are longer, with a much larger and wider sail, which apparently
contains two crew escape chambers.
The sole 'MIKE' (Project 685 "Plavnik").
The 'MIKE' (named Komsomolets) was a small, deep-diving,
titanium-hulled submarine. It had an unfortunate short life, however -
completed in 1983, she was lost in 1989.
An 'AKULA' class (Project 971 "Bars") submarine.
The 'AKULA' seems to be the "standard" Soviet/Russian submarine of the late
1980's and 1990's. Although designed primarily as a platform for the
SS-N-21 SSM, they have become general-purpose submarines by virtue of
their quiet operation and relatively affordable cost. Like the 'SIERRA'
class, they use the 'VICTOR III' sonar suite, with a modified icebreaker
reactor, but in a conventional steel hull. As a result, they are much
less expensive than the titanium 'SIERRA' class.
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